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Respir Med. 2002 Jun;96(6):382-8.

Indoor women jobs and pulmonary risks in rural areas of Isfahan, Iran, 2000.

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Department of Pathology, St. Zahra Medical Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.


The prevalence rate of chronic airway's diseases in women and associated risk factors in developing countries are not well clarified. We evaluated the role of indoor duties in the prevalence of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and related symptoms among females in Isfahan suburbs. In three randomly selected villages, 561 responder females (response rate=95.25%) were evaluated through medical interview and physical examinations. Symptoms, signs, occupational and smoking histories, indoor and farming duties, possible outdoor jobs, housing and farming conditions were assessed. The observed respiratory morbidities were: current asthma (11.2%), history of asthma (1.3%), using asthma medications in life (15.2%), chronic bronchitis (3.4%), exercise-induced dyspnea and/or cough (16.2%), and frequent night coughs and/or dyspnea (15.3%). Age, childhood pulmonary infection, bread baking, carpet weaving and using biomass fuels were significant risk factors for all the pulmonary morbidities (P<0.05 to <0.001). Poultry feeding, using kerosene and gas fuels, were less strong risk factors for asthma and chronic bronchitis, respectively Only seven women were current or ex-smokers. Indoor respirable particulate matters were two to four folds more concentrated than outdoors. Women doing indoor jobs in Iran are potential risk factors for development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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