Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Aug 1;35(3):313-22. Epub 2002 Jul 2.

Does patient sex affect human immunodeficiency virus levels?

Author information

Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Erratum in

  • Clin Infect Dis 2002 Dec 1;35(11):1455.


We undertook a critical epidemiological review of the available evidence concerning whether women have lower levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA than do men at similar stages of HIV infection. The 13 studies included in this analysis reported viral load measurements in HIV-infected men and women at a single point in time (cross-sectional studies) or over time (longitudinal studies). Seven of the 9 cross-sectional studies demonstrated that women had 0.13-0.35 log(10) ( approximately 2-fold) lower levels of HIV RNA than do men, despite controlling for CD4(+) cell count. Four longitudinal studies revealed that women had 0.33-0.78 log(10) (2- to 6-fold) lower levels of HIV RNA than do men, even when controlling for time since seroconversion. Adjustment for possible confounders of the relationship between sex and viral load, including age, race, mode of virus transmission, and antiretroviral therapy use, did not change this outcome. This finding is significant, because viral loads are frequently used to guide the initiation and modification of antiretroviral therapy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
    Loading ...
    Support Center