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Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002 May;40(5):463-8.

Myeloperoxidase-mediated protein oxidation: its possible biological functions.

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Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.


Oxidation of proteins occurs both as a side-effect of aerobic energy metabolism and as an effect of specific metabolism of phagocytic polymorphonuclear granulocytes producing O2- and H2O2. In contrast to other cells, which control their H2O2 level by degrading it to O2 and H2O, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMN) use H2O2 as a substrate for oxidizing chloride ions to HOCl which rapidly react with all neighboring thiol, disulfide and amino residues. Chloramines, which are the most abundant HOCl reaction products, react with proteins, modifying only certain exposed methionine and cysteine residues. This may account for selective inactivation of a number of enzymes, carrier proteins and peptide mediators, including the alpha1-proteinase inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin and plasminogen activator inhibitor. Inactivaton of plasma proteinase inhibitors protects PMN elastase, collagenase, cathepsin G and other serine proteases in the inflammatory foci. This promotes proteolytic degradation of damaged tissue, removal of bacterial debris and wound healing, as well as tissue remodeling related to the inflammatory processes. Oxidative control of protease-anti-protease balance affects the development of the inflammatory processes. Moreover, inactivation of plasma proteinase inhibitors facilitates primary antigen processing, upregulates lymphocyte proliferative response and activates the local immune response. Oxidation produces a specific protein tagging which attracts and stimulates immune active cells. Therefore, humoral response against oxidatively modified proteins occurs more effectively than that of the native proteins. The effect is dose-dependent with respect to the amount of oxidant employed. Glycol aldehyde, which is the serine chloramine spontaneous decay product, in mice immunized with glycol aldehyde-modified egg-white albumin, yields specific IgG production manifold higher than that in mice immunized with native albumin. Immunopotentiation is produced by proliferation expansion of the same immunocompetent clones. Oxidative tagging of proteins may also affect the autoimmune-type reaction. Thus, a growing body of data suggest that the specific role of protein oxidation by activated PMN is oxidative protein tagging facilitating further development of the immune reaction.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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