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Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002 Aug;283(2):F209-20.

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and the kidney.

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  • 1Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA.


Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor that was isolated 20 years ago. First recognized as an inhibitor of intravascular fibrinolysis, it is now evident that PAI-1 is a multifunctional protein with actions that may be dependent on or independent of its protease inhibitory effects. The latter often involve interactions between PAI-1 and vitronectin or the urokinase receptor. The protease-inhibitory actions of PAI-1 extend beyond fibrinolysis and include extracellular matrix turnover and activation of several proenzymes and latent growth factors. PAI-1 has been implicated in several renal pathogenetic processes, including thrombotic microangiopathies and proliferative and/or crescentic glomerulopathies. Most recently, it has become clear that PAI-1 also plays a pivotal role in progressive renal disease, both glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. An active area of present research interest, untold stories are likely to be uncovered soon.

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