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Bone. 2002 Jul;31(1):114-8.

Amelioration of osteoporosis by menatetrenone in elderly female Parkinson's disease patients with vitamin D deficiency.

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Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

Erratum in

  • Bone. 2008 Jul;43(1):217.


Significant reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) occurs in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), correlating with immobilization and with vitamin D deficiency, and increasing the risk of hip fracture, especially in elderly women. As a biological indicator of compromised vitamin K status, an increased serum concentration of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (Oc) has been associated with reduced BMD in the hip and an increased risk of fracture in otherwise healthy elderly women. We evaluated treatment with vitamin K(2) (menatetrenone; MK-4) in maintaining BMD and reducing the incidence of nonvertebral fractures in elderly female patients with PD. In a random and prospective study of PD patients, 60 received 45 mg of MK-4 daily for 12 months, and the remaining 60 (untreated group) did not. At baseline, patients of both groups showed vitamin D and K(1) deficiencies, high serum levels of ionized calcium, and glutaminic residue (Glu) Oc, and low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)(2)D], indicating that immobilization-induced hypercalcemia inhibits renal synthesis of 1,25-(OH)(2)D and compensatory PTH secretion. BMD in the second metacarpals increased by 0.9% in the treated group and decreased by 4.3% in the untreated group (p < 0.0001). Vitamin K(2) level increased by 259.8% in the treated group. Correspondingly, significant decreases in Glu Oc and calcium were observed in the treated group, in association with an increase in both PTH and 1,25-(OH)(2)D. Ten patients sustained fractures (eight at the hip and two at other sites) in the untreated group, and one hip fracture occurred among treated patients (p = 0.0082; odds ratio = 11.5). The treatment with MK-4 can increase the BMD of vitamin D- and K-deficient bone by increasing vitamin K concentration, and it can also decrease calcium levels through inhibition of bone resorption, resulting in an increase in 1,25-(OH)(2)D concentration.

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