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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul;87(7):3248-54.

Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II: marked sensitivity to thiazides, hypercalciuria, normomagnesemia, and low bone mineral density.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine E, Institute of Endocrinology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel.

Abstract

Mutations in WNK kinases cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II) and may represent a novel signaling pathway regulating blood pressure and K(+) and H(+) homeostasis. PHA II is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertension, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis, with normal glomerular filtration rate. Thiazide diuretics correct all abnormalities. Inactivating mutations in the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter cause Gitelman syndrome, featuring hypotension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis plus hypocalciuria and hypomagnesemia. We investigated whether hypercalciuria and hypermagnesemia occurred in a large family with PHA II. Eight affected and eight unaffected members of a PHA II family with the Q565E WNK 4 mutation were studied. In affected members blood and urinary chemistry were measured on and off hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), and bone mineral density was determined. Marked sensitivity to HCTZ was found. A mean dose of 20 mg/d reduced mean blood pressure in the six hypertensive subjects by 54.3 (systolic) and 24.5 (diastolic) mm Hg. In affected subjects, HCTZ reduced mean serum K(+) by 1.12 mmol/liter, mean serum Cl(-) by 6.2 mmol/liter, and mean urinary calcium by 65% and elevated mean serum calcium by 0.11 mmol/liter and mean serum urate by 118 micromol/liter. Compared with the literature, this represents an increase of 6-7 in HCTZ potency. Affected members had normomagnesemia, hypercalciuria (336 +/- 113 vs. 155 +/- 39 mg/d in unaffected relatives, P = 0.0002), and decreased bone mineral density. In PHA II the observed marked sensitivity to thiazides and the hypercalciuria are consistent with increased NaCl cotransporter activity. PHA II may serve as a model to investigate thiazides' beneficial effects and side effects.

PMID:
12107233
DOI:
10.1210/jcem.87.7.8449
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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