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Gastroenterology. 2002 Jul;123(1):271-80.

Identification of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 as a gastrin-regulated gene: Role of Rho GTPase and menin.

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Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England.



The gastric hormone gastrin regulates acid secretion, gene expression, and the functional development and cellular composition of the gastric mucosa. Using a gene array, we sought to identify major, novel, gastrin-regulated genes.


A cancer gene array was probed with samples from the gastric cancer cell line AGS, expressing the gastrin-cholecystokinin(B) receptor and stimulated with gastrin. The expression of gastrin-regulated genes was further characterized by Western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in tissue and blood of hypergastrinemic patients. Gene expression was studied using promoter-luciferase reporter constructs.


Plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2) was identified as a major, previously unknown target of gastrin in the gastric cancer cell line AGS. The relevance was confirmed by showing elevated tissue and plasma PAI-2 in hypergastrinemic patients (pernicious anemia and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1). PAI-2 promoter-luciferase constructs showed that gastrin stimulated expression via pathways involving Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits, protein kinase C, RhoA, and the transcription factors CREB and AP1. The tumor suppressor menin inhibited transcription. In addition, gastrin stimulated expression in adjacent cells via a paracrine mechanism involving protein kinase C and RhoA but not CREB.


A gene array showed PAI-2 to be a novel gastrin-regulated gene, stimulated in part through CREB and AP-1 and inhibited by the tumor suppressor menin.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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