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Urology. 2002 Jul;60(1):62-7; discussion 67-8.

Selective bladder preservation by combined modality protocol treatment: long-term outcomes of 190 patients with invasive bladder cancer.

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Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.



To evaluate the outcomes of patients with muscle-invasive Stage T2-4a bladder carcinoma managed by transurethral surgery and concurrent chemoradiation.


A total of 190 patients were treated on institutional prospective protocols using concurrent cisplatin-containing chemotherapy and radiotherapy after rigorous transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Patients were re-evaluated by repeated biopsy and urine cytologic analysis after 40 Gy, with the initial tumor response guiding subsequent therapy. One hundred twenty-one patients with a complete response by cytologic and histologic examination and those medically unfit for cystectomy received boost chemoradiation to 64 to 65 Gy. Those patients without a complete response were advised to undergo radical cystectomy. A total of 66 patients (35%) ultimately underwent radical cystectomy; 41 for less than a complete response and an additional 25 for recurrent invasive tumors. The median follow-up was 6.7 years for all surviving patients.


The 5 and 10-year actuarial overall survival rate was 54% and 36%, respectively (Stage T2, 62% and 41%; Stage T3-T4a, 47% and 31%, respectively). The 5 and 10-year disease-specific survival rate was 63% and 59% (Stage T2, 74% and 66%; Stage T3-T4a, 53% and 52%), respectively. The 5 and 10-year disease-specific survival rate for patients with an intact bladder was 46% and 45% (Stage T2, 57% and 50%; Stage T3-T4a, 35% and 34%), respectively. The pelvic failure rate was 8.4%. No patient required cystectomy because of bladder morbidity.


The 10-year overall survival and disease-specific survival rates are comparable with the results reported for contemporary radical cystectomy for patients of similar clinical and pathologic stage. One third of patients treated on protocol with the goal of bladder sparing ultimately required a cystectomy. A trimodality approach with bladder preservation based on the initial tumor response is, therefore, safe, with most long-term survivors retaining functional bladders.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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