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J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002 Jul;34(7):765-74.

Hypoxia up-regulates expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma angiopoietin-related gene (PGAR) in cardiomyocytes: role of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha.

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  • 1Genzyme Corporation, 31 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA, 01701, USA.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), especially the PPARalpha and PPARgamma, are associated with an extraordinary diverse spectrum of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, angiogenesis, cardiac hypertrophy, and atherosclerosis. PGAR (for PPAR gamma angiopoietin-related gene) is a recently identified PPAR target gene which is associated with adipose differentiation, systemic lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, and possibly angiogenesis. We report here that WY-14643, a selective PPARalpha ligand up-regulated PGAR expression in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. In parallel to activating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and glucose transporter-4, hypoxia increased PGAR mRNA levels. PGAR expression was also increased by desferrioxamine and CoCl(2), but not by sodium cyanide, results consistent with the pharmacological features of hypoxia-responsive genes. These studies are the first to demonstrate that hypoxia increases the mRNA levels of a PPAR target gene in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, infection with adenoviral vectors encoding the wild-type or a hybrid form of HIF-1alpha highly increased PGAR mRNA levels. In contrast, neither hypoxia nor overexpression of HIF-1alpha affected the mRNA levels of PPARalpha, PPAR gamma, and muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase, a known PPARalpha target gene. These results suggest that hypoxic activation of PGAR expression is likely mediated by HIF-1 but not the PPARalpha/RXR pathway.

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