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Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Jun 15;36(12):2614-29.

Estimates of the atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species: Clean Air Status and Trends Network 1990-2000.

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1
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA. baumgardner.ralph@epamail.epa.gov

Abstract

The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) was established by the U.S. EPA in response to the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. To satisfy these requirements CASTNet was designed to assess and report on geographic patterns and long-term, temporal trends in ambient air pollution and acid deposition in order to gauge the effectiveness of current and future mandated emission reductions. This paper presents an analysis of the spatial patterns of deposition of sulfur and nitrogen pollutants for the period 1990-2000. Estimates of deposition are provided for two 4-yr periods: 1990-1993 and 1997-2000. These two periods were selected to contrast deposition before and after the large decrease in SO2 emissions that occurred in 1995. Estimates of dry deposition were obtained from measurements at CASTNet sites combined with deposition velocities that were modeled using the multilayer model, a 20-layer model that simulates the various atmospheric processes that contribute to dry deposition. Estimates of wet deposition were obtained from measurements at sites operated bythe National Atmospheric Deposition Program. The estimates of dry and wet deposition were combined to calculate total deposition of atmospheric sulfur (dry SO2, dry and wet SO4(2-)) and nitrogen (dry HNO3, dry and wet NO3-, dry and wet NH4+). An analysis of the deposition estimates showed a significant decline in sulfur deposition and no change in nitrogen deposition. The highest rates of sulfur deposition were observed in the Ohio River Valley and downwind states. This region also observed the largest decline in sulfur deposition. The highest rates of nitrogen deposition were observed in the Midwest from Illinois to southern New York State. Sulfur and nitrogen deposition fluxes were significantly higher in the eastern United States as compared to the western sites. Dry deposition contributed approximately 38% of total sulfur deposition and 30% of total nitrogen deposition in the eastern United States. Percentages are similar for the two 4-yr periods. Wet sulfate and dry SO2 depositions were the largest contributors to sulfur deposition. Wet nitrate, wet ammonium, and dry HNO3 depositions were the largest contributors to nitrogen deposition.

PMID:
12099457
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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