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Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2002;13(2):132-42.

Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide signaling in gingival fibroblasts-CD14 and Toll-like receptors.

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Department of Pharmacology, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuhahanazono-cho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121, Japan.


Periodontal disease is the major cause of adult tooth loss and is commonly characterized by a chronic inflammation caused by infection of oral bacteria. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is one of the suspected periodontopathic bacteria and is frequently isolated from the periodontal pockets of patients with chronic periodontal disease. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. gingivalis is a key factor in the development of periodontitis. Gingival fibroblasts, which are the major constituents of gingival connective tissue, may directly interact with bacteria and bacterial products, including LPS, in periodontitis lesions. It is suggested that gingival fibroblasts play an important role in the host responses to LPS in periodontal disease. P. gingivalis LPS enhances the production of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in gingival fibroblasts. However, the receptor that binds with P. gingivalis LPS on gingival fibroblasts remained unknown for many years. Recently, it was demonstrated that P. gingivalis LPS binds to gingival fibroblasts. It was also found that gingival fibroblasts express CD14, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). P. gingivalis LPS treatment of gingival fibroblasts activates several intracellular proteins, including protein tyrosine kinases, and up-regulates the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), and signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and activating protein-1 (AP-1). These results suggest that the binding of P. gingivalis LPS to CD14 and TLR4 on gingival fibroblasts activates various second-messenger systems. In this article, we review recent findings on the signaling pathways induced by the binding of P. gingivalis LPS to CD14 and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in gingival fibroblasts.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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