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Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Jul;8(7):697-701.

Temporal changes in prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in 23 US hospitals.

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Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.


Antimicrobial resistance is increasing in nearly all health-care-associated pathogens. We examined changes in resistance prevalence during 1996-1999 in 23 hospitals by using two statistical methods. When the traditional chi-square test of pooled mean resistance prevalence was used, most organisms appear to have increased in prevalence. However, when a more conservative test that accounts for changes within individual hospitals was used, significant increases in prevalence of resistance were consistently observed only for oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin- or ofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli. These increases were significant only in isolates from patients outside intensive-care units (ICU). The increases seen are of concern; differences in factors present outside ICUs, such as excessive quinolone use or inadequate infection-control practices, may explain the observed trends.

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