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J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Jun 15;220(12):1831-4.

Urethroscopy and laser lithotripsy for the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive urolithiasis in goats and pot-bellied pigs.

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Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.



To explore the use of urethral endoscopy and laser lithotripsy in the diagnosis and management of urolithiasis in goats and pot-bellied pigs.


Prospective clinical study.


16 male goats and 6 male pot-bellied pigs with dysuria.


Abdominal ultrasonography and urethral endoscopy were performed on all 22 animals. Endoscopic-guided holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser lithotripsy was performed in 3 goats and 2 pot-bellied pigs.


Urolithiasis was identified in 15 goats and 5 pot-bellied pigs. Primary urinary bladder paralysis and cystitis were identified in the remaining pot-bellied pig and goat. Mean bladder diameters of obstructed small- and large-breed goats were 7 and 9.5 cm, respectively. The mean bladder diameter of obstructed pot-bellied pigs was 9.5 cm. Five of 20 animals with obstructive urolithiasis had severe urethral necrosis or stricture formation at the time of urethroscopy. All of these animals were euthanatized within 6 months because of persistent dysuria. When used, laser lithotripsy successfully fractured the distally located obstructing stones in the 3 goats and 2 pot-bellied pigs.


Urethral endoscopy is useful for evaluating urethral patency in goats and pot-bellied pigs. Examination of the urethral mucosa following relief of urethral obstructions aids in the assessment of the long-term prognosis for urethral stricture. Urethral endoscopy also expands the therapeutic options for management of urolithiasis by providing a route for conducting laser lithotripsy. Laser lithotripsy proved to be safe and effective for clearing distally located calculi refractory to removal by traditional urethral flushing. Lithotripsy application is restricted to calculi lodged in the urethra.

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