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Int Urol Nephrol. 2001;33(2):227-33.

Spectrum of renal diseases in the elderly: single center experience from a developing country.

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Department of Nephrology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.


From November 1998 to March 2000, two hundred patients over the age of 60 years (Elderly) with clinical renal disease were studied. 144 patients were between ages of 60-69 years, 46 between 70-79 years and 10 were above 80 years. The elderly patients (Male 165; Female 35) with renal disease constituted 11% (200/1816) of the total nephrology consultation during the study period. The clinical presentation included chronic renal failure (42.5%); acute renal failure (28%); nephrotic syndrome (14.5%); acute glomerulonephritis (7.5%); renal vascular disease (5%) and renal cystic disease (2.5%). Diabetic nephropathy, obstructive uropathy and hypertensive nephrosclerosis were the major causes of CRF, accounting for 80% of total CRF in the elderly. Chronic glomerulonephritis and chronic pyelonephritis (CPN) were less common and etiology of CRF was uncertain in 5.9% of cases. However, diabetic nephropathy was the commonest (49.4%) cause of chronic renal failure. We did not see a single case of ischemic nephropathy causing CRF in the present study. Prerenal ARF, obstructive uropathy and sepsis were contributing factors for ARF in 82% of the cases. Volume depletion due to gastrointestinal fluid loss and urinary tract obstruction on account of enlarged prostate were the leading causes of ARF in 20 (35.7%) and 8 (14.3%) cases respectively. Sepsis with or without multiorgan failure was the major (46.7%) cause of mortality in patients with ARF and overall mortality was 26.8%. The commonest (31%) cause of nephrotic syndrome was the idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy related to type-2 diabetes mellitus was the second most common (24.1%) cause of nephrotic syndrome. Diffuse endocapillary proliferative GN of post infectious etiology was the commonest (73.3%) type of acute GN in our elderly patients. Renal cystic diseases were noted in 5 (ADPKD 3; Simple cyst-2) patients. Thus, overall spectrum of renal disease in our elderly patients is similar to that of developed nations except in two ways: (i) Endocapillary proliferative GN of post infectious origin was the commonest type of acute GN and (ii) Rarity or absence of ischemic nephropathy and atherosclerotic renal artery occlusive disease.

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