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J Med Chem. 2002 Jul 4;45(14):3032-40.

Highly antibacterial active aminoacyl penicillin conjugates with acylated bis-catecholate siderophores based on secondary diamino acids and related compounds.

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Hans Knöll-Institute for Natural Products Research, Jena, Germany.


New acylated bis-catecholates and 1,3-benzoxazine-2,4-dione derivatives based on secondary diamino acids (N-(aminoalkyl)glycines, N-aminopropyl-alanine, and N-aminopropyl-4-aminovaleric acid), on N-(aminoalkyl)aminomethyl benzoic acids, on N-(aminoalkyl)aminomethyl phenoxyacetic acids, or on 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid were synthesized as artificial siderophores. The corresponding diamino acids were obtained from the diamines and oxocarboxylic acids by catalytic hydrogenation. The acylated bis-catecholates and 1,3-benzoxazine-2,4-diones were coupled with ampicillin or amoxicillin to new siderophore aminoacylpenicillin conjugates. These conjugates exhibited very strong antibacterial activity in vitro against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens. The ampicillin derivative 7b (HKI 9924154) and the corresponding amoxicillin derivative 8 (HKI 9924155) represent the most active compounds. The conjugates can use bacterial iron siderophore uptake routes to penetrate the Gram-negative outer membrane permeability barrier. This was demonstrated by assays with mutants deficient in components of the iron transport systems. New siderophore penicillin V conjugates with the siderophore component attached to the phenyl ring of penicillin V are inactive against these Gram-negative bacteria.

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