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Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2002 Jan;105(1):28-36.

Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV borderline, schizotypal, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study.

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  • 1Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8098, USA.



To test the diagnostic constructs implied by DSM-IV Axis-II personality disorders by examining relationships between different combinations of DSM-IV criteria.


Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the borderline, schizotypal, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder constructs in a large treatment-seeking sample (N= 668) from a multisite study. A model based on the three DSM-IV Axis II clusters was also tested. Both models were tested against a unitary 'generic' model constructed from four criteria sets combined.


Goodness-of-fit for both the three-cluster and four disorder models was significantly better than the unidimensional model, and the four-disorder model was significantly better than the three-cluster model. Results were replicated using data from 2-year follow-up obtained by interviewers blind to original Axis II diagnoses at baseline.


Support is provided for the DSM-IV disorder-level classification for schizotypal, borderline, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders in a treatment-seeking sample.

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