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J Infect Dis. 2002 Jun 15;185(12):1761-6. Epub 2002 May 31.

Prospective study of infective endocarditis among injection drug users.

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Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.


To determine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other factors on infective endocarditis (IE) among injection drug users (IDUs), the incidence of IE was determined according to HIV status in a cohort of IDUs. A nested case-control study assessed IE risk factors. IE incidence (117 cases) was higher among HIV-seropositive than HIV-seronegative IDUs (13.8 vs. 3.3 cases/1000 person-years) during 1988-1998. Multivariate analysis of HIV-infected case patients revealed an inverse association between IE and CD4 lymphocyte count (odds ratio [OR] for 200-499 cells/mm(3), 2.01; OR for <200 cells/mm(3), 3.61) and with alcohol intake (OR for 1-21 drinks/week, 0.43; OR for >21 drinks/week, 0.32). Women had an increased risk of IE (OR, 3.26), as did persons with increasing injection drug use frequency (OR for less than daily use, 3.15; OR for at least daily use, 6.07). This study confirms that IE is more common among IDUs with advanced HIV immunosuppression even after accounting for injection drug use behaviors.

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