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Biochem J. 2002 Oct 1;367(Pt 1):145-55.

Staurosporine induces endothelial cell apoptosis via focal adhesion kinase dephosphorylation and focal adhesion disassembly independent of focal adhesion kinase proteolysis.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, BHF Laboratories, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ, U.K.

Abstract

The survival of endothelial cells is dependent on interactions between the matrix and integrins mediated through focal adhesions. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is thought to play a key role in maintaining focal adhesion function and cell survival, whereas caspase-mediated FAK proteolysis is implicated in focal adhesion disassembly during apoptosis. We examined the relationship between changes in FAK phosphorylation and proteolysis during apoptosis of primary porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) induced by staurosporine, a widely used apoptogenic agent in diverse cell types. Staurosporine-induced PAEC apoptosis was detected after 1 h and was preceded by disruption and loss of FAK localization to focal adhesions within a few minutes, whereas staurosporine-induced cleavage of FAK occurred only after 8-24 h. Staurosporine induced a very rapid dephosphorylation of FAK at Tyr(861) and Tyr(397) and caused dissociation of phosphorylated FAK from focal adhesions as early as 30 s. The effect of staurosporine was very potent with striking inhibition of Tyr(861) and Tyr(397) phosphorylation and focal adhesion disruption occurring in the range 10-100 nM. Selective inhibition of a known target of staurosporine, protein kinase C, using GF109203X, and of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase using wortmannin, did not reduce FAK tyrosine phosphorylation at Tyr(861) and Tyr(397), or cause disruption of focal adhesions. Cycloheximide, the protein synthesis inhibitor, induced PAEC apoptosis more slowly than staurosporine, but did not induce FAK dephosphorylation or rapid focal adhesion disruption, and instead caused a slower loss of focal adhesions and a marked increase in FAK proteolysis. These studies show that FAK dephosphorylation and focal adhesion disassembly are very early events mediating the onset of staurosporine-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and are dissociated from FAK proteolysis. Cycloheximide induces apoptosis through a pathway involving FAK proteolysis without dephosphorylation.

PMID:
12084011
PMCID:
PMC1222856
DOI:
10.1042/BJ20020665
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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