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J Am Chem Soc. 2002 Jul 3;124(26):7801-11.

Long-range electron transfer across molecule-nanocrystalline semiconductor interfaces using tripodal sensitizers.

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1
Chemistry Department, Rutgers University, 73 Warren Street, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA. galoppin@andromeda.rutgers.edu

Abstract

Four tripodal sensitizers, Ru(bpy)(2)(Ad-tripod-phen)(2+) (1), Ru(bpy)(2)(Ad-tripod-bpy)(2+) (2), Ru(bpy)(2)(C-tripod-phen)(2+) (3), and Ru(bpy)(2)(C-tripod-bpy)(2+) (4) (where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, and Ad-tripod-bpy (phen) and C-tripod-bpy (phen) are tripod-shaped bpy (phen) ligands based on 1,3,5,7-tetraphenyladamantane and tetraphenylmethane, respectively), have been synthesized and characterized. The tripodal sensitizers consist of a rigid-rod arm linked to a Ru(II)-polypyridine complex at one end and three COOR groups on the other end that bind to metal oxide nanoparticle surfaces. The excited-state and redox properties of solvated and surface-bound 1-4 have been studied at room temperature. The absorption spectra, emission spectra, and electrochemical properties of 1-4 in acetonitrile solution are preserved when 1-4 are bound to nanocrystalline (anatase) TiO(2) or colloidal ZrO(2) mesoporous films. This behavior is indicative of weak electronic coupling between TiO(2) and the sensitizer. The kinetics for excited-state decay are exponential for 1-4 in solution and are nonexponential when 1-4 are bound to ZrO(2) or TiO(2). Efficient and rapid (k(cs) > 10(8) s(-)(1)) excited-state electron injection is observed for 1-4/TiO(2). The recombination of the injected electron with the oxidized Ru(III) center is well described by a second-order kinetic model with rate constants that are independent of the sensitizer. The sensitizers bound to TiO(2) were reversibly oxidized electrochemically with an apparent diffusion coefficient approximately 1 x 10(-11) cm(2) s(-)(1).

PMID:
12083934
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