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Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):93-9.

Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Epidemiologic studies report inconsistent findings on the association of fruit and vegetable intake with the risk of cardiovascular disease.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to examine the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

DESIGN:

We studied 9608 adults aged 25-74 y participating in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study and free of cardiovascular disease at the time of their baseline examination between 1971 and 1975. Fruit and vegetable intake at baseline was measured with a food-frequency questionnaire. The incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease were obtained from medical records and death certificates.

RESULTS:

Over an average of 19 y, 888 strokes (218 fatal), 1786 ischemic heart disease events (639 fatal), 1145 cardiovascular disease deaths, and 2530 all-cause deaths were documented. Consuming fruit and vegetables > or = 3 times/d compared with <1 time/d was associated with a 27% lower stroke incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.95; P for trend = 0.01), a 42% lower stroke mortality (0.58; 0.33, 1.02; P for trend = 0.05), a 24% lower ischemic heart disease mortality (0.76; 0.56, 1.03; P for trend = 0.07), a 27% lower cardiovascular disease mortality (0.73; 0.58, 0.92; P for trend = 0.008), and a 15% lower all-cause mortality (0.85; 0.72, 1.00; P for trend = 0.02) after adjustment for established cardiovascular disease risk factors.

CONCLUSION:

We showed an inverse association of fruit and vegetable intake with the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the general US population.

PMID:
12081821
DOI:
10.1093/ajcn/76.1.93
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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