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J AAPOS. 2002 Jun;6(3):174-81.

Risk factors for the development of accommodative esotropia following treatment for infantile esotropia.

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Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75231, USA.



One aim of the study was to determine whether accommodative esotropia after surgical alignment in infantile esotropia occurs because a pre-existing accommodative component is unmasked at the time of surgery or whether it occurs as a sequela of infantile esotropia. A second aim of the present study was to examine risk factors for accommodative esotropia after surgery for infantile esotropia.


A total of 80 consecutive patients who were enrolled in a prospective study of infantile esotropia had been followed for more than 4 years and had achieved orthoposition were included. Twelve potential risk factors were examined: age at onset, initial esodeviation, initial refractive error, age at alignment, delay in alignment, presurgical glasses, amblyopia, additional surgical procedures, unstable alignment, increase in hypermetropia, peripheral fusion, and stereopsis. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were computed for each factor and were corrected to relative risks.


Overall, 48 of 80 children (60%) developed accommodative esotropia at a mean age of 33 months. Increasing hypermetropia, delay in alignment, and poor stereopsis posed significant risks for accommodative esotropia. The remaining 9 factors were not associated with increased risk for accommodative esotropia.


Accommodative esotropia is unlikely to be a pre-existing condition in most cases because the mean age of onset was 23 months postoperative and the prevalence of preoperative hypermetropia greater than +3.00 D was low. Both delay in alignment and stereopsis risk factors may reflect compromised binocular sensory status that allows accommodative esotropia to occur at low to moderate levels of hypermetropia. Identification of children treated for infantile esotropia who are at risk for accommodative esotropia may allow for prevention or early treatment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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