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J Pers Assess. 2002 Apr;78(2):334-47.

Assessing general maladjustment with the MMPI-2.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, Kent State University, OH 44242, USA.


The validities of 7 MMPI-2 (Butcher, Graham, Ben-Porath, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 2001) measures of general maladjustment were compared using a composite criterion measure based on self-reported symptom severity and clinicians' ratings of symptom severity and level of functioning. Participants were 274 male and 425 female clients at a community mental health center and 105 male and 247 female clients at a university psychological clinic. All MMPI-2 measures were significantly related to the composite criterion measure for both male and female clients in both settings. The mean score on 8 clinical scales (M8) consistently was the best indicator of maladjustment. Although other MMPI-2 measures sometimes added significantly to the variance accounted for in the criterion measure, increments were small and probably not clinically meaningful. However, M8 added significantly and meaningfully to each of the other MMPI-2 measures in predicting maladjustment. Implications for using the MMPI-2 to assess general maladjustment in outpatient mental health settings are discussed.

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