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J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 23;277(34):30769-77. Epub 2002 Jun 13.

Beta-arrestin binding to CC chemokine receptor 5 requires multiple C-terminal receptor phosphorylation sites and involves a conserved Asp-Arg-Tyr sequence motif.

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Department of Immunology, University of Göttingen, Kreuzbergring 57, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.


Agonist binding to the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) induces the phosphorylation of four distinct serine residues that are located in the CCR5 C terminus. We established a series of clonal RBL-2H3 cell lines expressing CCR5 with alanine mutations of Ser(336), Ser(337), Ser(342), and Ser(349) in various combinations and explored the significance of phosphorylation sites for the ability of the receptor to interact with beta-arrestins and to undergo desensitization and internalization upon ligand binding. Receptor mutants that lack any two phosphorylation sites retained their ability to recruit endogenous beta-arrestins to the cell membrane and were normally sequestered, whereas alanine mutation of any three C-terminal serine residues abolished both beta-arrestin binding and rapid agonist-induced internalization. In contrast, RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) stimulation of a S336A/S349A mutant triggered a sustained calcium response and enhanced granular enzyme release. This mutational analysis implies that CCR5 internalization largely depends on a beta-arrestin-mediated mechanism that requires the presence of any two phosphorylation sites, whereas receptor desensitization is independently regulated by the phosphorylation of distinct serine residues. Surface plasmon resonance analysis further demonstrated that purified beta-arrestin 1 binds to phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated C-tail peptides with similar affinities, suggesting that beta-arrestins use additional receptor sites to discriminate between nonactivated and activated receptors. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed beta-arrestin 1 binding to the second intracellular loop of CCR5, which required an intact Asp-Arg-Tyr triplet. These results suggest that a conserved sequence motif within the second intracellular loop of CCR5 that is known to be involved in G protein activation plays a significant role in beta-arrestin binding to CCR5.

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