Send to

Choose Destination
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Jun 12;1590(1-3):41-51.

Activation of a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway is required for IL-1alpha-induced upregulation of beta-defensin 2 in human middle ear epithelial cells.

Author information

Gonda Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, House Ear Institute, 2100 West 3rd Street, Los Angeles, CA 90057, USA.


beta-defensin 2 is produced by a variety of epithelial cell types in the body and exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogens, including the bacteria that are most commonly associated with otitis media (OM). The human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) gene is an NF-kappa B regulated gene and a variety of proinflammatory stimuli can induce its expression. Although the presence of molecules of innate immunity such as lysozyme and lactoferrin has been demonstrated in the middle ear, to date there have been no reports on the expression of beta-defensin 2. In the present study, we demonstrate that beta-defensin 2 is expressed in the middle ear mucosa of humans and rats. We also show that it is expressed in a human middle ear epithelial cell line and that its expression is induced by proinflammatory stimuli such as interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, we demonstrate that the transcriptional activation of hBD-2 gene by IL-1 alpha is mediated through an Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center