Send to

Choose Destination
Cell. 2002 May 31;109(5):589-98.

Two distinct Pseudomonas effector proteins interact with the Pto kinase and activate plant immunity.

Author information

Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.


The Pto serine/threonine kinase of tomato confers resistance to speck disease by recognizing strains of Pseudomonas syringae that express the protein AvrPto. Pto and AvrPto physically interact, and this interaction is required for activation of host resistance. We identified a second Pseudomonas protein, AvrPtoB, that interacts specifically with Pto and is widely distributed among plant pathogens. AvrPtoB is delivered into the plant cell by the bacterial type III secretion system, and it elicits Pto-specific defenses. AvrPtoB has little overall sequence similarity with AvrPto. However, AvrPto amino acids, which are required for interaction with Pto, are present in AvrPtoB and required for its interaction with Pto. Thus, two distinct bacterial effectors activate plant immunity by interacting with the same host protein kinase through a similar structural mechanism.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center