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Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002 Jul;283(1):C223-34.

Modulation of cardiac PIP2 by cardioactive hormones and other physiologically relevant interventions.

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Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9040, USA.


Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) affects profoundly several cardiac ion channels and transporters, and studies of PIP2-sensitive currents in excised patches suggest that PIP2 can be synthesized and broken down within 30 s. To test when, and if, total phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and PIP(2) levels actually change in intact heart, we used a new, nonradioactive HPLC method to quantify anionic phospholipids. Total PIP and PIP2 levels (10-30 micromol/kg wet weight) do not change, or even increase, with activation of Galpha(q)/phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent pathways by carbachol (50 microM), phenylephrine (50 microM), and endothelin-1 (0.3 microM). Adenosine (0.2 mM) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (1microM) both cause 30% reduction of PIP2 in ventricles, suggesting that diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent mechanisms negatively regulate cardiac PIP2. PIP2, but not PIP, increases reversibly by 30% during electrical stimulation (2 Hz for 5 min) in guinea pig left atria; the increase is blocked by nickel (2 mM). Both PIP and PIP2 increase within 3 min in hypertonic solutions, roughly in proportion to osmolarity, and similar effects occur in multiple cell lines. Inhibitors of several volume-sensitive signaling mechanisms do not affect these responses, suggesting that PIP2 metabolism might be sensitive to membrane tension, per se.

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