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Cryo Letters. 2002 Mar-Apr;23(2):69-78.

Cryosurgery - a review of recent advances and current issues.

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Roswell Park Memorial Institute, State University of New York at Buffalo, 666 Elm Street, 14263,USA.


Advances in cryosurgery since 1990 were initiated by the development of improved cryosurgical equipment and by the availability of intraoperative ultrasound to monitor the tissue-freezing process. Interest in research on the effects of freezing on tissue and on new clinical applications was then stimulated. The research led to a better understanding of the mechanisms of cryogenic injury, including cell death by apoptosis, which has emerged as a potential key to the use of adjunctive chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. Optimization of cryosurgical technique will also improve clinical results.

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