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Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Mar;14(1):59-64.

Phenomenology of and risk factors for new-onset diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis associated with atypical antipsychotics: an analysis of 45 published cases.

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Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Diego, USA.


Case reports and small retrospective studies suggest that atypical antipsychotic agents may be associated with new-onset Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); however, these reports often provide limited or no information on demographic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, relationship to weight gain, and time course. We analyzed 45 published cases of new-onset DM or DKA for which followed initiation of atypical antipsychotic treatment. Of the 45 patients, 20 had received clozapine, 19 olanzapine, 3 quetiapine, and 3 risperidone. Eighty-seven percent patients were male, and 47% African American. Forty-two percent of these patients presented as DKA, and 50% manifested no weight gain at time of presentation with DM or DKA, although 84% were overweight before antipsychotic therapy. Eighty-four percent presented within 6 months and 59% within 3 months of commencing atypical antipsychotics. The DKA cohort had significantly younger age, less overweight at baseline, and higher proportion of women than did those with DM alone, without significant differences in distribution of ethnicity, weight gain, family history of DM, or duration of exposure to atypical agents. Clinicians should be aware of the potential risks of new-onset DM and DKA in patients taking atypical antipsychotics, and utilize appropriate clinical and laboratory monitoring to prevent serious adverse events.

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