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Pediatrics. 2002 Jun;109(6):e97.

Osteopetrosis, lymphedema, anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency in a boy and incontinentia pigmenti in his mother.

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  • 1Unité d'Immunologie et d'Hé matologie pédiatriques, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France.


A child with X-linked osteopetrosis, lymphedema, anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency (OL-EDA-ID) was recently reported. We report the clinical features of a second boy with this novel syndrome and his mother, who presented with signs of incontinentia pigmenti (IP). The child had mild osteopetrosis without neurosensory complications, unilateral lymphedema of the left leg, and characteristic features of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with sparse hair, facial dysmorphy, delayed eruption of teeth, and sweat gland abnormalities. He died at 18 months of severe immunodeficiency with multiple infections caused by Gram-negative (Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria, nontuberculous mycobacteria (Mycobacterium kansasii), and fungi (Pneumocystis carinii). His 30-year-old mother's medical history, together with residual cutaneous lesions, was highly suggestive of IP without neurologic impairment. In this patient with OL-EDA-ID, we detected the same NF-kappaB essential modulator stop codon hypomorphic mutation identified in the previous patient. The occurrence of the same clinical features in 2 unrelated patients with the same genotype demonstrates that OL-EDA-ID is a genuine clinical syndrome. The clinical and biological descriptions of the proband and his mother further corroborate the relationship between IP and EDA. Both syndromes are allelic and are associated with mutations in NF-kappaB essential modulator, with a genotype-phenotype correlation in hemizygous males. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations and hypomorphic mutations may cause IP in females.

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