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J Biochem. 2002 Jun;131(6):767-71.

The Edg family G protein-coupled receptors for lysophospholipids: their signaling properties and biological activities.

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1
Department of Physiology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, Takara-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan. ytakuwa@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are blood-borne lysophospholipids with a wide spectrum of biological activities, which include stimulation of cell growth, prevention of apoptosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and modulation of cell shape, cell migration, and invasion. Activated platelets appear to be a major source of both S1P and LPA in blood. Despite the diversity of their biosynthetic origins, they are considered to share substantial structural similarity. Indeed, recent investigation has revealed that S1P and LPA act via a single family of G protein-coupled receptors designated as Edg. Thus, the Edg isoforms, Edg1 (also called S1P(1)), Edg5 (S1P(2)), Edg3 (S1P(3)), Edg6 (S1P(4)), and Edg8 (S1P(5)), are specific receptors for S1P (and SPC with a lower affinity), whereas Edg2 (LPA(1)), Edg4 (LPA(2)), and Edg7 (LPA(3)) serve as receptors specific for LPA. Each receptor isoform displays a unique tissue expression pattern and coupling to a distinct set of heterotrimeric G proteins, leading to the activation of an isoform-specific panel of multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Recent studies on knockout mice have unveiled non-redundant Edg receptor functions that are essential for normal development and vascular maturation. In addition, the Edg lysophospholipid signaling system may play a role in modulating cell motility under such pathological conditions as inflammation, tumor cell dissemination and vascular remodeling.

PMID:
12038970
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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