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Vet Parasitol. 2002 Jun 3;106(2):121-53.

A review of toxoplasmosis in wild birds.

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Parasite Biology, Epidemiology and Systematics Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, BARC-East, Building 1001, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA.


Toxoplasma gondii affects most species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. There is considerable confusion regarding the identity of T. gondii-like parasites and the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In this review, T. gondii-like infections in different species of wild birds are reviewed with particular reference to prevalences, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment. Although subclinical T. gondii infections are prevalent in many avian species, toxoplasmosis can be clinically severe in pigeons and canaries. Blindness associated with T. gondii in canaries is reviewed in detail.

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