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J Am Chem Soc. 2002 May 29;124(21):6056-62.

Rationally designed glycosylated premithramycins: hybrid aromatic polyketides using genes from three different biosynthetic pathways.

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Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau, Pharmazeutische Biologie, Stefan-Meier Strasse 19, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.


Heterologous expression of the urdGT2 gene from the urdamycin producer Streptomyces fradiae Tü2717, which encodes a C-glycosyltransferase, into mutants of the mithramycin producer Streptomyces argillaceus, in which either one or all glycosyltransferases were inactivated, yielded four novel C-glycosylated premithramycin-type molecules. Structure elucidation revealed these to be 9-C-olivosylpremithramycinone, 9-C-mycarosylpremithramycinone, and their respective 4-O-demethyl analogues. In another experiment, both the urdGT2 gene from S. fradiae and the lanGT1 gene from S. cyanogenus, were coexpressed into a S. argillaceus mutant lacking the MtmGIV glycosyltransferase. This experiment, in which genes from three different organisms were combined, resulted in the production of 9-C-(olivo-1-4-olivosyl)premithramycinone. These results prove the unique substrate flexibility of the C-glycosyltransferase UrdGT2, which tolerates not only a variety of sugar-donor substrates, but also various acceptor substrates. The five new hybrid products also represent the first compounds, in which sugars were attached to a position that is normally unglycosylated. The successful combination of two glycosyltransferases in the latter experiment proves that the design of saccharide side chains by combinatorial biosynthetic methods is possible.

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