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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Apr;958:232-4.

Autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase in patients from eastern India with malnutrition-modulated diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

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Cuttack Diabetes Foundation, Cuttack, Orissa, India.


Antibodies to tyrosine phosphatase (IA2-Ab) and glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65-Ab) are major markers for IDDM in Caucasians. TTG-Ab is specific for celiac disease. Celiac disease is caused by ingestion of the protein gliadin, a component of wheat gluten, and usually resolves on its withdrawal. Ten to twenty percent of celiac disease patients also have IDDM. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of TTG-Ab in MMDM (n = 71), IDDM (n = 74), and NIDDM (n = 216) and 122 controls from Cuttack in eastern India. MMDM patients are typically young at onset with low body mass index, require insulin for glycemic control, have insulin resistance, and do not develop ketosis on withdrawal of insulin. TTG-Ab was evaluated by radioimmunoassay using in vitro translated recombinant human 35S-TTG. In controls, TTG-Ab was present in 3/122 (2%); in MMDM, TTG-Ab was present in 14/71 (20%); 11/74 (15%) IDDM (P < 0.05 vs. controls) and 23/216 (11%) NIDDM (P < 0.05 vs. controls) were also positive for TTG-Ab. We conclude that MMDM, IDDM, and NIDDM patients from Cuttack have a significantly high proportion of TTG-Ab compared to healthy controls. The highest significance is seen with MMDM patients. It is important to note that subclinical celiac disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of MMDM.

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