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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Apr;958:138-43.

Molecular mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of malnutrition-modulated diabetes mellitus.

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Cuttack Diabetes Foundation, Cuttack, Orissa, India.


MMDM patients are typically young at onset with low body mass index, require insulin treatment for glycemic control, have insulin resistance, and do not develop ketosis on withdrawal of insulin. WHO's revised classification in 1999, based on the etiopathogenesis of the disease, identifies only two categories: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. MMDM could be considered as type 1b diabetes. Genetic and immunological studies were done on MDDM patients (n = 72) from Cuttack and healthy controls to understand and to justify its inclusion in the category of type 1b diabetes. Antibodies (Abs) to tyrosine pyrophosphatase (IA2-Abs), glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65-Abs), and other minor markers like ICA12 Abs and tissue transglutaminase Abs (TTG-Abs) were studied. HLA-DR and DQ were studied for the genetic markers. Of the MMDM patients 30% were positive for either GAD65 or IA-2 antibodies, and 14% were positive for ICA12 antibodies. All three antibody markers together accounted for 39% of PDDM patients, as some patients were positive for more than one autoantibody. TTG antibodies (specific for Celiac disease) were present in 14/71 (20%) of MMDM patients compared to 3/122 (2%) controls. All four autoantibodies accounted for 53% of PDDM patients, leaving 47% of patients free of known autoantibodies. The autoantibody-negative PDDM patients were analyzed for HLA and MICA markers, showing that DR7-DQ9 and MICA allele 9 are increased in this group compared to healthy controls, which suggests an autoimmune response to an unknown dietary autoantigen. We conclude from our data that an autoimmune mechanism is involved in the etiology of MMDM. In addition, the presence of silent celiac disease seen with MMDM patients, which has not yet been reported, is significant. It is important to note that subclinical celiac disease exists with diabetes mellitus and must be considered in the diagnosis of MMDM.

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