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J Endod. 2002 Mar;28(3):211-6.

Roentgenographic investigation of frequency and degree of canal curvatures in human permanent teeth.

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Poliklinik für Zahnerhaltung, Münster, Germany.


Canal curvatures of 700 permanent human teeth were determined by measuring the angle and the radius of the curvatures and the length of the curved part of the canal. For each type of tooth (except third molars) 50 were selected at random and were investigated. Size 08 silver points were inserted into the canals, and the teeth were radiographed from a facial and proximal view by using a standardized technique. All radiographs were analyzed by a computerized digital image processing system. Of the 1163 root canals examined, 980 (84%) were curved and 65% showed an angle < or = 27 degrees with radii < 40 mm. Thirteen percent displayed angles between 27 degrees and 35 degrees with radii not greater than 15 mm, and 9% of all canals that were investigated had curves > 35 degrees with the greatest radius of 13 mm. The greatest angle of all the teeth was 75 degrees with a radius of 2 mm. To define the canal curvature mathematically and unambiguously, the angle, the radius, and the length of the curve should be given.

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