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Microb Drug Resist. 2002 Spring;8(1):67-72.

Characterization of haemophilus influenzae isolated from invasive disease in Brazil from 1990 to 1999.

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Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Bacteriology Department, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.


The Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was introduced in the National Immunization Program in Brazil in the second half of 1999. A retrospective analysis on serotypes, biotypes, and antimicrobial resistance of Hi invasive strains obtained through Hi survey was conducted to document the characteristics of this pathogenic agent during a decade prior the use of Hib vaccine. A total 3,204 strains from 1990 to 1999 were studied, being 88.2% isolated from cerebrospinal fluid, 10.7% from blood, and 1.1% from pleural fluid. The rate of 90.9% of strains was obtained from children up to 4 years old, and the age group >6 months old to 1 year was the higher risk to Hi infection. Type b was, by far, the most common type (97.8%), followed in frequency by type a (0.5%); only 1.5% was a nontypable strain. Biotypes I and II accounted for 97.8% of isolates. Resistance to ampicillin (AM) and chloramphenicol (CO) was detected at rates of 18.1% and 19.1%, respectively, whereas simultaneous resistance to AM and CO was identified in 13.9% of strains. Total concordance was found between AM resistance and beta-lactamase production. No strain showed resistance to ceftriaxone and rifampicin. In conclusion, the data generated through this laboratory-based surveillance should serve as a reference for assessing the impact of Hib vaccination and to detect changes on the pattern of Hi diseases in the country.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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