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Int J Food Microbiol. 2002 May 5;75(1-2):27-38.

Protein expression during lag phase and growth initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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  • 1Department of Dairy and Food Science, Food Microbiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.


In order to obtain a better understanding of the biochemical events taking place in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the lag phase, the proteins expressed during the first hours after inoculation were investigated by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and compared to those expressed in late respiratory growth phase. The studies were performed on a haploid strain (S288C) grown in defined minimal medium. Some of the abundant proteins, whose expression relative to total protein expression was induced during the lag phase, were identified by MALDI MS, and the expression of the corresponding genes was assessed by Northern blotting. The rate of protein synthesis was found to increase strongly during the lag phase and the number of spots detected on 2-D gels increased from 502 spots just after inoculation to 1533 spots at the end of the lag phase. During the first 20 min, the number of detectable spots was considerably reduced compared to the number of spots detected from the yeast in respiratory growth just prior to harvest and inoculation (747 spots), indicating an immediate pausing or shutdown in synthesis of many proteins just after inoculation. In this period, the cells got rid of most of their buds. The MALDI MS-identified, lag phase-induced proteins were adenosine kinase (Ado1p), whose cellular role is presently uncertain, cytosolic acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Ald6p) and (DL)-glycerol-3-phosphatase 1, both involved in carbohydrate metabolism, a ribosomal protein (Asc1p), a fragment of the 70-kDa heat shock protein Ssb1, and translationally controlled tumour protein homologue (Yk1056cp), all involved in translation, and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase I involved in biosynthesis reactions. The level of mRNA of the corresponding genes was found to increase strongly after inoculation. By pattern matching using previously published 2-D maps of yeast proteins, several other lag phase-induced proteins were identified. These were also proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and biosynthesis reactions. The identified proteins together with other, yet unidentified, lag phase-induced proteins are expected to be important for yeast growth initiation and could be valuable biological markers for yeast performance. Such markers would be highly beneficial in the control and optimisation of industrial fermentations.

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