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Mol Microbiol. 2002 May;44(3):865-75.

KTI11 and KTI13, Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes controlling sensitivity to G1 arrest induced by Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin.

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  • 1Institut für Genetik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Weinbergweg 10, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany.


The Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin and its gamma-toxin subunit inhibit cell cycle progression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify S. cerevisiae genes conferring zymocin sensitivity, we complemented the unclassified zymocin-resistant kti11 and kti13 mutations using a single-copy yeast library. Thus, we identified yeast open reading frames (ORFs) YBL071w-A and YAL020c/ATS1 as KTI11 and KTI13 respectively. Disruption of KTI11 and KTI13 results in the complex tot phenotype observed for the gamma-toxin target site mutants, tot1-7, and includes zymocin resistance, thermosensitivity, hypersensitivity to drugs and slow growth. Both loci, KTI11 and KTI13, are actively transcribed protein-encoding genes as determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in vivo HA epitope tagging. Kti11p is highly conserved from yeast to man, and Kti13p/Ats1p is related to yeast Prp20p and mammalian RCC1, components of the Ran-GTP/GDP cycle. Combining disruptions in KTI11 or KTI13 with a deletion in TOT3/ELP3 coding for the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) Elongator histone acetyltransferase (HAT) yielded synthetic effects on slow growth phenotype expression. This suggests genetic interaction and possibly links KTI11 and KTI13 to Elongator function.

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