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J Urol. 2002 Jun;167(6):2598-602.

Over expression of ID-1 in prostate cancer.

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Cancer Biology Lab, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China.



The helix-loop-helix protein Id-1 serves to prevent basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors from binding to DNA, thus, inhibiting the transcription of differentiation associated genes. Over expression of Id-1 has been reported in certain tumors, such as breast, esophageal, pancreatic and medullary thyroid cancers. In Noble rats we have previously demonstrated that up-regulation of Id-1 is closely associated with the development of sex hormone induced prostate cancers. Therefore, we hypothesized that over expression of Id-1 would also occur in human prostate cancer and Id-1 protein may serve as a potential marker for prostate carcinogenesis. To test this hypothesis we analyzed Id-1 messenger RNA and protein expression by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study in human normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer tissues.


Pathological specimens were obtained from 19 patients with BPH and 47 with prostate carcinoma, representing a complete range of Gleason grades. A total of 12 normal prostate tissue specimens were used for comparison. Immunohistochemical study was performed using the polyclonal antibody against human Id-1 protein and an RNA probe was generated from Id-1 complementary DNA for in situ hybridization.


Negative to weak expression of Id-1 in normal prostate or BPH tissue was observed on immunohistochemical study and in situ hybridization. In contrast, all prostate cancer biopsies showed significant positive Id-1 expression in tumor cells at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Furthermore, Id-1 expression was stronger in poorly differentiated than in well differentiated carcinomas, suggesting that the level of Id-1 expression may be associated with tumor malignancy.


Our results suggest that over expression of Id-1 may have important roles in the development of prostate cancer. The potential use of Id-1 protein as a marker for prostate cancer should be further explored.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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