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Osteoporos Int. 2002 Mar;13(3):211-7.

Association of physical activity and calcium intake with the maintenance of bone mass in premenopausal women.

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UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland.


Altogether 92 initially 25- to 30-year-old women of 132 original subjects participated in this 4-year follow-up study, which evaluated the influence of physical activity and calcium intake on the bone mineral content (BMC) of premenopausal women. The subjects were originally selected for a cross-sectional study according to their level of physical activity (high PA+ and low PA-) and calcium intake (high Ca+ and low Ca-), and the original groups were maintained in this follow-up study. The mean loss of BMC (95% CI) in the pooled data was 1.5% (0.7% to 2.4%) at the femoral neck, 0.6% (-0.8% to 1.9%) at the trochanter and 6.0% (4.5% to 7.4%) at the distal radius during the 4-year follow-up. According to repeated measures analyses of covariance neither physical activity nor physical fitness at baseline was associated with the rate of bone loss from the proximal femur. High calcium intake and the maintenance of body weight were both associated with a lower rate of bone loss from the proximal femur and distal radius. In addition, a long duration of breast feeding was associated with a higher rate of bone loss from the distal radius.

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