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Am J Public Health. 2002 May;92(5):830-3.

Heat wave morbidity and mortality, Milwaukee, Wis, 1999 vs 1995: an improved response?

Author information

1
Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga, USA. mweissko@hsph.harvard.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study examined whether differences in heat alone, as opposed to public health interventions or other factors, accounted for the reduction in heat-related deaths and paramedic emergency medical service (EMS) runs between 1995 and 1999 during 2 heat waves occurring in Milwaukee, Wis.

METHODS:

Two previously described prediction models were adapted to compare expected and observed heat-related morbidity and mortality in 1999 based on the city's 1995 experience.

RESULTS:

Both models showed that heat-related deaths and EMS runs in 1999 were at least 49% lower than levels predicted by the 1995 relation between heat and heat-related deaths or EMS runs.

CONCLUSIONS:

Reductions in heat-related morbidity and mortality in 1999 were not attributable to differences in heat levels alone. Changes in public health preparedness and response may also have contributed to these reductions.

PMID:
11988455
PMCID:
PMC1447169
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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