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J Invasive Cardiol. 2002 May;14(5):221-6.

Standardized angiographically guided over-dilatation of stents using high pressure technique optimize results without increasing risks.

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Division of Cardiology, Orebro Medical Centre, Division of Cardiology, 70185, Orebro, Sweden.



Routine angio-guided stent deployment results in a relatively high restenosis rate, which is mostly due to stent sub-expansion. Several different intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) criteria for optimal stent deployment have been proposed. A minimal in-stent restenosis and a minimal in-stent lumen area of > or = 9 mm2 have been associated with low rates of restenosis and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 6 months. The role of high-pressure stent deployment and/or upsizing the post-dilatation balloon has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of achieving accepted IVUS criteria safely without IVUS guidance with the combination of high-pressure deployment and post-dilatation with a 0.25 mm oversized balloon.


Thirty-four stents (26 NIR, 3 AVE GFX, 3 ACS GFX, 1 Bard, 1 Jostent) were implanted in 30 patients until optimal angiographical results were obtained (< 10% residual stenosis visually). Forty percent of the patients had unstable angina pectoris, forty-four percent had complex lesions (B2 and C) and 29% were occlusions. Mean inflation pressure was 12.6 +/- 1.6 atm, mean stent diameter was 3.2+/- 0.4 mm and mean stent length was 15.1+/- 5.4 mm. Post-dilatation was performed with the same stent using a short (compared to the angiographic reference segment), 0.25 mm oversized Scimed Maxxum Energy 3.5 +/- 0.4 mm balloon using high pressure (16.1 +/- 1.7 atm) followed by an off-line IVUS examination of the stents. There was clinical follow-up for 1 year. Results in patients with single-vessel disease were compared with those of non-randomized controls, who were stented with high pressure but without over-dilatation.


No stent achieved the nominal diameter, in spite of over-dilatation. Mean minimal stent diameter (MLD) according to IVUS was 2.9 +/- 0.4 mm (92% of the angiographic reference diameter). Mean minimal lumen area (MLA) was 7.7 +/- 2.2 mm2. An in-stent MLA > or = 90% of the distal reference segment (AVID criteria) and an MLA > or = 100% or > or = 90% of the smallest/average reference segment (MUSIC criteria) was found in 67% and 57%, respectively. MLA > or = 9 mm2 was achieved in 38%. All stents had good apposition and obtained a symmetry index > or = 0.7 mm. No acute perforations, dissections or other serious complications occurred during the over-dilatation. At 1 year, five patients had re-angina leading to a new coronary angiography; only 1 patient had a significant in-stent restenosis requiring re-PTCA. Compared to non-overdilated historical controls, the standardized over-dilatation seemed to give a larger MLD (3.0 +/- 0.4 mm vs. 2.7 +/- 0.4 mm; p = 0.03), more patients who fulfilled AVID criteria (70% vs. 32%; p = 0.048) and more stents with MLA > or = 9 mm2 (46% vs. 11%; p = 0.02).


A standardized 0.25 mm over-dilatation of stents never achieved nominal stent size, but did improve lumen gain and was associated with low target vessel revascularization without adding complications to the routine stenting procedure.

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