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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 May;43(5):1450-5.

Fundus photography for measurement of macular pigment density distribution in children.

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Department of Neurology/Clinical Neurophysiol, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.



To evaluate a photographic procedure for reflectometry of the topographic distribution of macular pigment density in normal pediatric subjects.


Digitized blue (480 nm) and green (540 nm) photographic images were aligned and subtracted to generate optical density difference maps. An 8 degrees x 8 degrees area concentric with the fovea was analyzed. Gaussian curves were fitted through the foveola along the vertical and horizontal meridians. The peak density and full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) were calculated. The subjects (n = 23; median age 10.5 years) had normal eyes and good acuity.


The peak macular pigment (MP) density was 0.13 +/- 0.04 density units (DU) which is at the lower end of the range previously obtained by other reflectometry procedures. Density distributions were circularly symmetrical. The FWHM ranged was 2.4 degrees +/- 0.5 degrees. Neither MP nor FWHM varied significantly with age.


The photographic method is feasible and provides quantitative assessment of topographic properties of macular pigment in young subjects. Future application to clinical studies of pediatric patients is envisioned.

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