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J Biol Chem. 2002 Jun 28;277(26):23888-97. Epub 2002 Apr 23.

Myotrophin/V-1, a protein up-regulated in the failing human heart and in postnatal cerebellum, converts NFkappa B p50-p65 heterodimers to p50-p50 and p65-p65 homodimers.

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  • 1Winters Center For Heart Failure Research, Molecular Cardiology Unit, Cardiology Section of Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.


Myotrophin/V-1 is a cytosolic protein found at elevated levels in failing human hearts and in postnatal cerebellum. We have previously shown that it disrupts nuclear factor of kappaB (NFkappaB)-DNA complexes in vitro. In this study, we demonstrated that in HeLa cells native myotrophin/V-1 is predominantly present in the cytoplasm and translocates to the nucleus during sustained NFkappaB activation. Three-dimensional alignment studies indicate that myotrophin/V-1 resembles a truncated IkappaBalpha without the signal response domain (SRD) and PEST domains. Co-immunoprecipitation studies reveal that myotrophin/V-1 interacts with NFkappaB proteins in vitro; however, it remains physically associated only with p65 and c-Rel proteins in vivo during NFkappaB activation. In vitro studies indicate that myotrophin/V-1 can promote the formation of p50-p50 homodimers from monomeric p50 proteins and can convert the preformed p50-p65 heterodimers into p50-p50 and p65-p65 homodimers. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of myotrophin/V-1 resulted in elevated levels of both p50-p50 and p65-p65 homodimers exceeding the levels of p50-p65 heterodimers compared with Adbetagal-infected cells, where the levels of p50-p65 heterodimers exceeded the levels of p50-p50 and p65-p65 homodimers. Thus, overexpression of myotrophin/V-1 during NFkappaB activation resulted in a qualitative shift by quantitatively reducing the level of transactivating heterodimers while elevating the levels of repressive p50-p50 homodimers. Correspondingly, overexpression of myotrophin/V-1 resulted in significantly reduced kappaB-luciferase reporter activity. Because myotrophin/V-1 is found at elevated levels during NFkappaB activation in postnatal cerebellum and in failing human hearts, this study cumulatively suggests that myotrophin/V-1 is a regulatory protein for modulating the levels of activated NFkappaB dimers during this period.

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