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Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002 May;26(5):587-93.

Production of interleukin-6 by skeletal myotubes: role of reactive oxygen species.

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George P. Livanos Laboratory, Evangelismos Hospital, Department of Critical Care and Pulmonary Services, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.


In the present study we have tested the ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to stimulate the production of interleukin (IL)- 6 from skeletal myocytes. Differentiated C2C12 murine skeletal muscle cells (myotubes) exposed to pyrogallol (PYR), xanthine/ xanthine-oxidase (X/XO), or H(2)O(2) for 24 h exhibited a concentration-dependent increase in IL-6 production. Unlike myotubes, incubation of myoblasts and endothelial cells with X/XO or PYR did not result in increased IL-6 release. In myotubes, superoxide dismutase and catalase blocked the ROS-induced IL-6 release. Exposure of myotubes to H(2)O(2) increased steady-state IL-6 mRNA levels, and pretreatment of myotubes with actinomycin D or cycloheximide abolished the ROS-induced IL-6 production. In addition, pretreatment of cells with N-acetyl-cysteine blocked tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced IL-6 release, suggesting that endogenously produced ROS participate in IL-6 production. Myotubes stimulated with H(2)O(2) exhibited increased I kappa B-alpha phosphorylation and degradation, and treatment of C2C12 with ROS-generating agents increased activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B-dependent promoter activity. Finally, preincubation of myotubes with the pharmacologic inhibitor of NF-kappa B, diethyldithiocarbamate, or transient transfection with an I kappa B-alpha mutant, inhibited the ROS-stimulated IL-6 release. In conclusion, ROS stimulate IL-6 production from skeletal myotubes in a manner that involves transcriptional activation of the IL-6 gene through an NF-kappa B-dependent pathway.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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