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Xenobiotica. 2002 Mar;32(3):235-50.

SB-242235, a selective inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. II: in vitro and in vivo metabolism studies and pharmacokinetic extrapolation to man.

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Preclinical Drug Discovery, Cardiovascular, Urogenitary, and Oncology Centre for Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA.


1. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase has been investigated extensively as a potential therapy for cytokine-mediated diseases such as autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. SB-242235 (1-(4-piperidinyl)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(2-methoxy-4-pyrimidinyl) imidazole) is a potent and selective p38 MAP kinase inhibitor; the preclinical pharmacokinetics of SB-242235 have been described previously. The present studies were conducted to describe the in vitro metabolic rates and routes of SB-242235 metabolism, to characterize its in vivo preclinical metabolism, and to use these data to aid in the prediction of the pharmacokinetic behaviour of SB-242235 in man. 2. SB-242235 was metabolically stable in rat, dog, monkey and human hepatic microsomes, isolated hepatocytes and liver slices in vitro. The in vivo preclinical metabolism studies were consistent with the in vitro findings; SB-242235 was minimally metabolized, and was primarily excreted unchanged in the urine (45 and 67% of the administered dose in the rat and monkey, respectively). 3. Allometric scaling using various correction factors predicted that SB-242235 would have low clearance in man with a predicted half-life ranging from 11.5 to 18.7h. This prediction was consistent with the observed mean half-life of 16.4h in the first-in-man study for SB-242235. An allometric scaling method with a correction for interspecies differences in glomerular filtration rate provided the most accurate prediction of the pharmacokinetic behaviour of SB-242235 in humans, although the clinical data also highlight potential difficulties in conducting prospective allometry.

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