Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eur Cytokine Netw. 2002 Jan-Mar;13(1):128-33.

The effect of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production by neuronal precursor cells.

Author information

Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.



To determine whether granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production by neuronal precursor (NT2) cells can be regulated by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha.


We have previously demonstrated GM-CSF expression by neurons of the developing human brain, as well as by NT2 cells. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha upregulate GM-CSF production in glial cells, but GM-CSF regulation in neurons is as yet undefined. We hypothesized that IL-1beta and TNF-alpha would increase GM-CSF mRNA and protein production in NT2 cells.


The effect of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha on GM-CSF production was assessed by dose response (0 to 2,000 U/ml), and time course (0 to 48 hours incubation) experiments. GM-CSF mRNA and protein production were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and by ELISA. The effect of these cytokines on cell turnover was determined by BrdU incorporation.


IL-1beta increased GM-CSF mRNA and protein expression by NT2 cells. This effect was time and dose dependent, and the effective dose ranging from (20-200 U/ml). TNF-alpha increased GM-CSF mRNA expression to a lesser extent than did IL-1beta (maximal stimulation at 200 U/ml), and a minimal increase in net protein accumulation was noted. Neither cytokine increased NT2 cell turnover.


IL-1beta and TNF-alpha both increase GM-CSF mRNA expression by NT2 cells, but only IL-1beta increases net GM-CSF protein accumulation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for John Libbey Eurotext
    Loading ...
    Support Center