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Reprod Toxicol. 2002 Mar-Apr;16(2):117-22.

Low dose effect of in utero exposure to bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on female mouse reproduction.

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  • 1Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku 236-0027, Japan.


In utero exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) at doses relevant to human consumption has been reported to accelerate weight gain and puberty in female mice, but the effect of low dose BPA on female reproduction has not been described. In this study, we investigated low dose effects of BPA on sexual maturation and reproduction in female ICR/Jcl mice. Pregnant ICR mice (F0) were injected (s.c.) with BPA (2 and 20 microg/kg), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.02, 0.2, and 2 microg/kg) or oil vehicle once per day from gestational days 11-17. For both female and male offspring (F1), body weights were measured on postnatal day (PND) 0 (the day of birth), 11, 22, and 60, and anogenital distance (AGD) was measured on PNDs 22 and 60. Pups were weaned at PND 22 and males were caged separately from females. Vaginal smears were taken daily beginning the day of vaginal opening for 30 days. The age at vaginal opening was significantly earlier in all exposed females except for 2 microg/kg BPA females compared to oil controls. Body weight at vaginal opening was lower than controls in all exposed females. The first vaginal estrus was earlier in all exposed females except for the 2 microg/kg BPA group females compared to controls. From PND 90 to 120, gestationally exposed F1 female mice were mated with unexposed males. Total numbers of pups and sex ratio in F1 mice exposed to BPA or DES, and those of their offspring (F2) were not different from controls in any treatment group. The present results indicate that prenatal exposure to low doses of BPA and DES induces early vaginal opening, but does not affect reproductive functioning at the first breeding.

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