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BJU Int. 2000 May;85 Suppl 3:24-34; discussion 36.

New methods of bladder augmentation.

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Department of Urology, Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.


Gastrointestinal segments are commonly used for bladder replacement or repair. However, when gastrointestinal tissue is in contact with the urinary tract, several complications may ensue. Recent surgical approaches have relied on native urological tissue for reconstruction. These are based on sound surgical principles, allowing for the exclusion of tissue that is not urological. De-epithelialized bowel segments, either alone or over native urothelium, have also been used. An experimental system of progressive dilatation for ureters and bladders has been proposed. This appears promising, although it has yet to be attempted clinically. There has been a resurgence of interest in the use of acellular collagen-based matrices as scaffolds for bladder regeneration; experimental work is currently underway. Recently, functional bladder tissue has been engineered using selective cell transplantation. This technique uses autologous cells, so avoiding rejection. Tissue is obtained from the host, the cells then dissociated and expanded in vitro, re-attached to a matrix and implanted into the same host. Clinical trials are currently being arranged. Even though the use of bowel for bladder tissue replacement was first proposed over 100 years ago, it remains the gold standard, despite its associated problems. It is evident that urothelial-urothelial anastomoses are preferable functionally. Experience is currently being gained with the recent clinical and experimental approaches to augmentation cystoplasty. It is hoped that this will result in more technologies and methods for bladder augmentation.

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