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J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002 Apr;70(2):356-61.

Patterns of change in depressive symptoms during smoking cessation: who's at risk for relapse?

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Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University School of Medicine/Butler Hopital, Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA.


The authors examined patterns of change in depressive symptoms during smoking cessation treatment in 163 smokers with past major depressive disorder (MDD). Cluster analysis of Beck Depression Inventory (A. T. Beck, C. H. Ward, M. Mendelson, J. Mock, & J. Erbaugh, 1961) scores identified 5 patterns of change. Although 40% of participants belonged to clusters characterized by increasing depressive symptoms during quitting (rapid increasers, n = 31, and delayed increasers, n = 35), almost 47% were in clusters characterized by decreasing symptoms (delayed decreasers, n = 24, and rapid decreasers, n = 52). Both rapid and delayed increasers had especially poor smoking cessation outcomes. Results suggest that among smokers with an MDD history there is substantial heterogeneity in patterns of depressive symptoms during quitting and that patterns involving increased symptoms are associated with low abstinence rates.

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